Lithium Battery-school
How to Top Balance Lifepo4
  1. Hook up the LiFePO4 cells in parallel – (that means connecting all the positives together and the same for the negatives.)
  2. Charge to 3.45V with a regulated DC power supply with overvoltage protection. This part takes a long time! And your power supply should be large enough to cater to your needs. Our exclusive 30amp Lab supply is voltage and current limited here.
  3. Once it hits 3.45V, then adjust the target voltage to 3.65V, keep an eye on the cells during this stage, the voltage will rise very rapidly and it’s good not to rely solely on the overvoltage protection feature of the power supply. Check with a multimeter very regularly.
  4. Once you hit 3.65V, turn off the power and leave for an hour or more. Check to see if it’s still over 3.5V. If not, charge it up to 3.65V again and leave it for another hour. Repeat until it does.
  5. Once done, reassemble the pack into your desired battery Voltage eg. 12V or 24V, and discharge
  6. Storing at a high level of charge is not good for the LiFePO4 cells. If storing for a long time, discharge down to 30-50%. If possible, keep the battery below 90% SOC and above 10% SOC. It will increase the lifespan of the cells. And definitely help with cell bloat.

    Congratulations you have successfully manually top balanced.

An alternative (not ideal or recommended) way to top balance a battery pack with a BMS, such as the JBD BMS is to connect the battery cells in series, and slowly, incrementally increase the pack voltage inside the Bluetooth app. (occasionally this will not work if the cells are at different SOC, please be aware, it could take weeks to balance if that were the case, and therefore it’s not usually recommended unless you don’t have any access to an appropriate voltage limited Lab supply)

1. Wire up the Battery in series. Eg, connect the 4 cells (positive to negative) Which will create a battery of about 13.2V for a 4s LiFePo4 Battery.
2. Charge with a charger between 14v and 14.6v. Slower is better
3. Inside the JBD Bluetooth app (XiaoXiang), set the fully charged voltage to 3.45v, and a total pack voltage of 13.8v and charge it until the BMS stops. Inside the app turn off the charge balancing feature and leave until all the cells are balanced.
4. The following day or more inside the BMS Bluetooth app settings increase the pack voltage to 14.4v (3.6v per cell) or 14.6v (3.65v) and ensure the balance on charge is turned off. The battery will then go and top balance itself. Leave here until balanced

Blog Lithium Battery-school Manufacturers
Hithium 280ah 300ah and 320ah cell Lifepo4 Review

Wondering about Hithium Lifepo4 cells quality?

Hithium 280Ah cells are a type of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery cells. They are known for their high energy density, long cycle life, and safety features123.

Information about the cell. The cell is identical to the current reference design of a prismatic Lifepo4 cell with the dimensions of 207mm x 173mm x 71mm. These are identical in every way to the cells made by CATL, EVE, CALB, GOTION, BYD, GREAT POWER, REPT, SUNWODA and the list goes on. All of these currently manufacturer this exact same cell, with the exact same dimensions. They all use the same ingredients, with very minute differences to the cathode and anode and electrolyte mixture.

Hithium 280AH
  • Product certifications:
    IEC 62619, UL 1973, UL 9540A, UN 38.3
  • Company certifications:
    ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO 45001
  • Environmental Compliance: ROHS, REACH

High safety

  • Hithium-developed prismatic LFP cell with high thermal stability
  • Passes crush and nail penetration test
  • Ultra wide operating temperature range

Overall this cell is modified to last longer. Although the truth is the cycle count can be manipulated such as 6000 cycles at 80% is the same as 9000 cycles at 70% and so on. So the claim of 10000 cycles is probably true. Especially considering they are made with the intention of Energy storage, so with a Hithium cell you know you are getting something that will last a very long time.

Is Andy from Off Grid Garage a scammer?
Was he sold fake B grade HITHIUM cells in 2023?

Yes, Andy receives generous kickbacks from his reviews and has on multiple occasions gone out of his way to spread false truths to ensure he continues to receive these kickbacks. He is not a genuine unbiased reviewer and most of what he says is not based on anything real or worth paying attention to.
All the Hithium cells that you will find for sale, do not look like he presented. Only the worst sellers who rip people off will replace the QR the way he showed in this video.

Does it matter, yes, Social media is extremely viral and in 2023 Hithium had to write off millions of dollars in A grade stock because Andy makes silly videos such as this. Even though they are better quality than many EVE cells on the market, Andy single handedly caused enormous brand damage to this high-quality company. He should be ashamed but he is not bothered as he has been profiting from his partnership with QSO.

Why do I care enough to mention it. Because I also got caught with stock, high quality expensive stock because of his manipulation and profiteering.

Testing the 10.000 Cycle Hithium 280Ah batteries. Did I just get scammed 7 41 screenshot

Links to the cell information.

3.2V 280Ah LiFePO4 Battery Prismatic Cell With 10000cycles (

News Blog
Kings vs Voltx Lithium Battery

Both of these batteries are basic with no Bluetooth or management options, but they both do what they say. The Kings battery has the advantage of larger capacity, but also retail locations you can always get customer service if required.

Lets start with The Kings 120Ah Lithium LiFePO4 Battery it’s a reliable and versatile energy storage solution. Let’s explore its features:

  1. Capacity and Chemistry:
  2. Applications:
  3. Quality Assurance:
    • Kings prioritizes quality by integrating a robust BMS.
    • With its impressive cycle life, this battery can serve you reliably over the long term.

Remember to follow proper charging practices and safety guidelines to maximize the lifespan of your Kings 120Ah Lithium Battery.

We 100% recommend the kings 120Ah lithium battery for those who do not want to spend all their money on their setup. There are better batteries out there. But 98% aren’t that much better to demand 5 times the price.

VOLTX 100ah Lifepo4 Battery Review.


The VoltX 12V 100Ah LiFePO4 Basic Lithium Battery has garnered positive reviews from users. Let’s delve into some feedback:

  1. Richard B. from Metropolitan Adelaide, SA:
    • Describes the battery as “faultless” and praises its bargain price.
    • Used it for over 6 months without issues.
    • Runs two fridges (40L & 60L) for days on end, primarily charged via solar.
    • His brother also purchased one with similar success.
  2. Udo:
    • Calls it “perfect” and great value for the money.
    • Works well for his off-grid setup.
  3. Goona:
    • Labels it a “brilliant battery” that outlasts AGM batteries.
    • Faster charging and significantly lighter.
    • Going strong for almost 3 years.
  4. Keith Wilkinson from South East Queensland, QLD:
    • Replaced a 120AH AGM with this battery.
    • Powers a chest freezer through a 3000W inverter.
    • Reliable even after cloudy days.
  5. Mark:
    • Appreciates its lightweight (half the weight of AGM).
    • Runs fridges and an inverter without issues.
  6. Steve K:
    • Loves it for camping with a 75L fridge.
    • No more messy ice-filled eskies.

Remember that individual experiences may vary, but overall, the VoltX 12V 100Ah LiFePO4 Basic Lithium Battery seems to be a solid choice for various applications. 🌟🔋

For more detailed reviews, you can check out

We recommend this battery only when the Kings Battery isn’t available.

Lithium Battery-school
Are second life Lithium Batteries safe?

Are you considering repurposing battery cells and building your own Powerwall or similar Energy storage system?

We are going to take a look at what you must understand before starting a project of this type.

The Chemistry


Both of these chemistries are considered dangerous, and they should be avoided, especially in any second life application. And even more importantly in any residential application. There is a real risk of a short circuit, leading to thermal runaway. Both of these chemistries will be extremely difficult to extinguish. And may explode, and burn anything and everything around it down to ashes, Firefighters will not try to extinguish a Lithium Battery fire, as they know they have no option but to wait for the

The capacity loss of LiBs is generally considered to be linear, with end of life typically around 75% to 80% state of health (SoH) and the final end-of-life stage around 50% to 60% SoH. However, at some point a severe and potentially dangerous deterioration can occur and lead to an increased ageing rate. The time at which this occurs, referred to as the “knee,” is difficult to predict. It can occur at a higher SoH than expected, thereby increasing the risk of thermal runaway, internal short circuits, and joule heating, according to the report.

Lithium Iron Phosphate

Although it is possible for LFP to enter thermal runaway, it is very unlikely, and usually only happens when external heat is present, it can also happen when the cell is at 100% SOC and is supplied with a very high current, such as

What is Thermal Runaway?

Lithium Battery-school
Who is EVE Energy?

EVE Energy is a technology-driven company focused on the development of lithium batteries. Their products are widely used in the IoT, EV and ESS. Eve Energy makes prismatic, pouch and cylindrical battery cells. Along with a range of other batteries, including Lithium metal non rechargeable batteries.

Company Website –
EVE Energy Co., Ltd. (stock code: 300014)

Household ESS, Utility ESS, and Telecom ESS with products covering cells, modules, battery systems, battery management systems, and other comprehensive solutions

News Blog
Who is Energy Renaissance?

Energy Renaissance is Australia’s first lithium-ion battery manufacturer and they produce batteries that are safe, affordable and optimised for hot climates at Tomago, NSW. They are building an exciting future where the world is powered by clean, stored energy everywhere – right here in Australia. They work with CSIRO as our research collaborator and Cadenza Innovation as our technology partner. Energy Renaissance will advance local battery manufacturing capabilities, create jobs in Australia and build significant economic benefits for our lithium-ion battery materials industry through a local supply chain. More than half of the batteries will be exported to Asia and when its production facility is operating at capacity, Energy Renaissance will be able to make enough batteries to power every public school, hospital, fire station, SES unit and new homes built in Australia.


Energy Renaissance is developing Australia’s first advanced lithium-ion battery Gigafactory. 

Driving sustainable economic development and creating jobs in regional Australia. For every employee they hire, Energy Renaissance has the potential to create five jobs in upstream industries.

A look at the current product available by energy renaissance

renaissance superRack™ twin

pre-configured higher voltage multi rack system with unique ship-in-rack capability

The Renaissance superRack™  twin has been designed from the ground up for faster, simpler, safer implementation and maintenance. Ideally suited for commercial, agricultural and utility scale applications.

The superRack™ Twin design makes it easy to address a wide range of power and energy applications. Scaling is simple with multi rack systems that are pre-configured and with our unique ship-in-rack capability this means faster, easier and more cost effective installation.

  • Powered by cybersecure Renaissance superBMS™ and supported by cybersecure Renaissance superEMS™
  • 10-year performance warranty
  • High energy density kWh/㎥
  • Real time monitoring and reporting down to the minute via the Energy Renaissance portal, accessible from any internet connected device
  • Air cooled for safety and reliability
  • Transportable; packs designed to be transported in rack to site
renaissance superRack twin 2

You can find more on there website here

Lithium Battery-school
Who is CATL?

CATL is the leading Lithium and as of 2023 Sodium-ion battery manufacturer in China and the World.

CATL (Contemporary Amperex Technology Limited) is a Chinese battery manufacturer that produces lithium-ion and as of 2023 sodium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage systems. The company was founded in 2011 and has quickly become the leading EV battery manufacturer in the world. It supplies batteries to a number of major automakers, including Tesla, Volkswagen, BMW, and Toyota. CATL has also established a number of partnerships and collaborations with other companies in the EV and energy storage industries.

The company provides research and development, production, and sale of electric vehicle and energy storage battery systems. It also provides battery management systems, materials, battery cells, and battery recycling and reuse systems. These batteries are used in electric passenger vehicles, electric buses, electric trucks, and other special vehicles; and spare parts. The products of energy storage systems find their applications in renewable energy, communication base stations, grid frequency modulation, commercial and industrial buildings, and household energy storage. It also operates its business from Ningde, Fujian, China also has production in Germany, and overseas offices in Japan, France, and the USA regions.

LiFePo4 Video from CATL


HOW China’s CATL makes its batteries

News Blog
Hithium 280ah 12000 cycle LFP cells used in 400MWh The largest standalone battery storage project in China

The 200MW/400MWh battery energy storage system (BESS) is live in Ningxia, China, equipped with Hithium lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells.

Established 3 years ago in 2019 is already ramping up to a target of more than 135GWh of annual battery cell production capacity by 2025 for a total investment value of about US$4.71 billion.

The project was connected to the grid earlier this month, through a system integrator called ROBESTEC, about which little information appears publicly available. However, it is understood that although Hithium makes and provides complete BESS solutions as well as cells, in this case, it was the cell supplier.

200MW/400MWh HITHIUM LFP BESS in China

China 400MWh Hithium 12000 cycle LFP Battery 1

The facility stores energy at times of abundant generation from solar PV and wind, putting it into the grid during times of peak demand. It will also help regulate grid frequency.

If you are interested in these new 280AH cells, which Hithium and CATL currently can produce specifically for ESS use, let us know, as we have access to the cells when the demand is slightly lower. As these are actually in high demand for commercial applications, and they technically are hard to get for the DIY community.

it’s expected this giant LFP battery will cut CO2 emissions by 501,000 tons per year

Hithium specializes in the R&D, production, and sales of LFP energy storage batteries and systems. With strong customer orientation, they are committed to providing safe, efficient, clean, and sustainable energy storage solutions for the world. Hithium now has over 4400 employees globally including over 1000 R&D engineers with extensive experience in energy storage. With a planned 4.71 billion USD total investment and 1,400,000m2 factory space to achieve 135GWh production capacity of the energy storage battery in 2025.

Xiamen Haichen New Energy Lithium Battery
Hithium-280ah-LFP280 12000 Cycles Storage Grade
280ah capacity test

We delivered these cells in 2022 to a few customers and currently have a small shipment arriving again in February 2023. As they are an unknown brand to many customers, we haven’t ordered large quantities, because many customers still want EVE, CATL, LiShen, CALB, and various other brands they have heard of. It’s just not a well-known brand,

In the past was a bad thing, But with this type of new technology, sometimes it’s a great thing to get in early while you can.

Lithium Battery-school
Pylontech First Gen 8 years old – Lifepo4 with bad cells – Repaired

Model – Extra 2000 – First generation Pylontech Lifepo4 Battery

Thanks to Nicolas for making this video of his First generation Lifepo4 Battery repair.

Here we see an old Pylontech battery with a capacity of only 10% original capacity, and over the course of 2 youtube videos, Nicolas is able to cut out a couple of bad pouch cells and restore the battery to approx 80% again.
Well done Nicholas

Nicholas Howell
Youtube subs – 1.61K subscribers

Part 1

Part 2

Lithium Battery-school Blog
What is the best way to prolong the lifespan of lifepo4 batteries?

There are several steps you can take to prolong the life of Lifepo4 batteries, including the following:

  1. Store the batteries properly: Lifepo4 batteries should be stored in a cool, dry place at a temperature of around 15-20 degrees Celsius (60-68 degrees Fahrenheit). Avoid storing the batteries in extreme temperatures, as this can damage the cells and reduce their lifespan.
  2. Charge and discharge the batteries properly: Lifepo4 batteries should be charged and discharged within the recommended voltage range to ensure optimal performance and longevity. Overcharging or deep discharging the batteries can damage the cells and reduce their lifespan.
  3. Avoid exposing the batteries to high temperatures: Lifepo4 batteries are sensitive to high temperatures and can degrade quickly when exposed to them. Avoid exposing the batteries to high temperatures, such as by keeping them out of direct sunlight or away from heat sources.
  4. Use a battery management system (BMS): A BMS can help to optimize the charging and discharging of Lifepo4 batteries, protecting them from overcharging, deep discharging, and other factors that can damage the cells and reduce their lifespan.

By following these steps, you can help to prolong the life of your Lifepo4 batteries and ensure they perform at their best for as long as possible.


Lifepo4 batteries, like all lithium-ion batteries, can expand or “bloat” when they are overcharged or charged too quickly. The specific voltage at which this can occur will depend on the specific chemistry and construction of the battery, as well as the charging conditions and other factors. In general, however, it is important to avoid overcharging Lifepo4 batteries and to charge them at a slow, steady rate to prevent bloating and other damage to the cells. Most Lifepo4 batteries are designed to be charged to a maximum voltage of around 3.65-3.7 volts per cell, and charging them above this level can cause bloating and other damage to the cells. It is important to refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for the specific charging voltage and charging rate for your Lifepo4 batteries.

REAL WORLD Cycle life

Good quality Lifepo4 cells should achieve about 2,000 deep discharge/charge cycles, averaging 1 cycle per day would allow for 5.5 years of use before a noticeable loss of capacity.

Shallow cycles are the best way to extend the lifespan, which means not going below about 30% of the remaining capacity. And not above 90% SOC. For use in residential and commercial purposes, We at LIFEPO4 Australia would recommend sizing and using your battery within these parameters.

10,000 shallow discharge/charge cycles would last around 13+ years.

LFP vs NMC lithium battery degradation-test-results
Its likely the LFP was shallow cycles at a low C rate such as below 0.2C