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Lithium Battery-school News
Key Aspects of IEC 62619:2022

The IEC 62619:2022 standard specifies requirements and tests for the safe operation of secondary lithium cells and batteries used in industrial applications. This includes stationary applications like energy storage systems and mobile applications such as electric vehicles. The standard is crucial for manufacturers, integrators, and end-users who rely on lithium battery technology, as it addresses several critical aspects of safety and performance.

Key Aspects of IEC 62619:2022

Scope and Application:

  • The IEC 62619:2022 standard is specifically designed for secondary lithium cells and batteries for industrial applications. It does not cover batteries for consumer electronics or those used in electrically propelled road vehicles.
  • It is applicable to cells and batteries regardless of the lithium-ion chemical composition.

Safety Requirements:

  • The standard includes stringent safety requirements for lithium-ion batteries to minimize risks such as thermal runaway, fire, and electric shock. These requirements are designed to protect users, technicians, and nearby equipment from potential hazards.
  • It mandates measures for the protection against mechanical abuses, electrical abuses (like overcharge and deep discharge), and thermal abuses, ensuring the batteries can withstand harsh conditions without failing.

Testing Procedures:

  • IEC 62619:2022 outlines comprehensive testing procedures to verify compliance with its safety requirements. These tests assess the battery’s ability to safely charge and discharge, its resistance to mechanical stress, and its thermal stability, among other factors.
  • The tests include, but are not limited to, short circuit conditions, overcharge, forced discharge, thermal abuse, and mechanical shock tests.

Performance Metrics:

  • While the primary focus of IEC 62619:2022 is on safety, it also considers performance aspects such as cycle life, capacity, and efficiency under various conditions, ensuring that the batteries not only are safe but also perform reliably over their intended lifespan.

Documentation and Marking:

  • The standard requires clear documentation for the safe handling, operation, and maintenance of lithium-ion batteries. This includes data sheets, instructions for use, and safety warnings.
  • Batteries must be marked with specific information, including manufacturer details, type, electrical characteristics, and safety symbols, as applicable.

Environmental Considerations:

  • Although IEC 62619:2022 focuses on safety and performance, manufacturers and users are encouraged to consider environmental impacts, including recycling and disposal of lithium-ion batteries in accordance with local regulations and best practices.

Importance of IEC 62619:2022

Compliance with IEC 62619:2022 is crucial for manufacturers and suppliers of lithium-ion batteries for several reasons:

  • Safety: It ensures that products are designed and tested to minimize risks of injury or damage.
  • Market Access: Many countries and industries require compliance with international standards like IEC 62619:2022 for market entry.
  • Quality Assurance: Adherence to the standard reassures customers and end-users about the quality and reliability of the batteries.
  • Regulatory Compliance: It helps manufacturers navigate the complex landscape of global regulations concerning lithium-ion batteries.

For the most current and detailed information, including any amendments or interpretations, directly consulting the IEC 62619:2022 standard document and associated regulatory bodies is recommended.

News
SOK vs EG4 – Battery Comparisons

When examining the landscape of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries, SOK and EG4 stand out for their quality, reliability, and performance. Both brands have garnered attention in the renewable energy sector, particularly among solar energy enthusiasts and off-grid living proponents. This analysis will delve into the technical aspects of popular LiFePO4 batteries from SOK and EG4, highlighting their features, performance, and suitability for various applications.

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Capacity and Energy Density

SOK LiFePO4 Batteries:
SOK batteries are known for their true-to-advertised capacity, typically offering a range from 100Ah to 200Ah per battery. This capacity is ideal for a range of applications, from home energy storage systems to RV and marine applications. The energy density of SOK batteries is optimized for longevity and reliability, with a focus on providing consistent power output over an extended period.

EG4 LiFePO4 Batteries:
EG4 also provides a range of capacities, similar to SOK, with models also available in the 100Ah to 200Ah range. The energy density of EG4 batteries is competitive, ensuring that they occupy less space while delivering equivalent power, which is particularly advantageous in mobile applications and installations where space is at a premium.

Cycle Life and Longevity

SOK LiFePO4 Batteries:
SOK batteries boast a significant cycle life, often rated at over 4000 cycles at 80% depth of discharge (DoD), which translates to more than a decade of use under normal conditions. This long lifespan is a testament to the quality of the battery construction and the efficiency of the internal BMS (Battery Management System).

EG4 LiFePO4 Batteries:
EG4 matches the industry standard with a similar cycle life, also claiming upwards of 4000 cycles at 80% DoD. This level of performance indicates that EG4 batteries are built to last, providing users with a reliable power source over many years.

Charging and Discharging Rates

SOK LiFePO4 Batteries:
SOK batteries are designed to accommodate flexible charging and discharging rates, suitable for various applications. Typically, they can support continuous discharge rates up to 1C and charge rates up to 0.5C. This means a 100Ah SOK battery can be discharged at 100A and charged at 50A, making them versatile for different energy needs.

EG4 LiFePO4 Batteries:
EG4 batteries offer similar charging and discharging capabilities, with most models supporting 1C discharge and 0.5C charge rates. This compatibility with high-rate charging and discharging makes EG4 batteries suitable for applications requiring rapid energy availability and storage.

Built-in Battery Management System (BMS)

SOK LiFePO4 Batteries:
The BMS in SOK batteries is designed for efficiency and safety, providing overcharge, over-discharge, over-current, and temperature protection. Additionally, the BMS facilitates cell balancing, ensuring that each cell in the battery operates optimally, which is crucial for maintaining the battery’s health and extending its lifespan.

EG4 LiFePO4 Batteries:
Similarly, EG4 batteries come equipped with a sophisticated BMS that offers protection against common battery issues, including overcharging, deep discharging, and overheating. The BMS also supports cell balancing, which is essential for the longevity and performance of the battery.

Price and Value

SOK LiFePO4 Batteries:
SOK batteries are generally considered to offer excellent value for money, given their longevity, reliability, and performance. While they may carry a higher upfront cost compared to traditional lead-acid batteries, their extended lifespan and lower total cost of ownership make them a financially sound investment over time.

EG4 LiFePO4 Batteries:
EG4 batteries are competitively priced, offering a similar value proposition to SOK. The brand is known for providing high-quality batteries that meet the demands of rigorous applications, ensuring that consumers receive a product that balances cost with performance and durability.

Conclusion

Both SOK and EG4 LiFePO4 batteries offer exceptional quality, performance, and reliability for a wide range of applications. The choice between the two will largely depend on specific application requirements, brand preference, and potentially the level of customer service and support offered by the company. In terms of technical specifications, both brands are closely matched, providing durable, high-performance batteries that promise long-term reliability and efficiency for energy storage needs.

Lithium Battery-school
JBD vs JK BMS : Comparing BMS Giants

Comparing BMS Giants: JBD vs JK BMS

In the world of Battery Management Systems (BMS), two names often come up as leading the pack: JBD and JK BMS. Both brands have carved significant niches for themselves in the energy storage and management industry, catering to a wide array of applications from electric vehicles (EVs) to stationary energy storage systems. This article aims to shed light on the similarities and differences between JBD and JK BMS, helping you to make an informed decision on which BMS brand might be the best fit for your specific needs.

JiaBaida Logo
JK BMS logo

Background and Reputation

JBD, short for Jiabaida, has earned a reputation for its high-performance, smart BMS solutions. The company focuses on the integration of advanced technology to ensure the safety, efficiency, and longevity of lithium batteries. JBD’s innovative approach towards battery management has made it a favorite among high-tech applications, including aerospace, electric vehicles, and high-capacity energy storage systems.

JK BMS, on the other hand, is known for its robust and reliable battery management solutions that cater to a wide range of lithium battery applications. With a strong emphasis on research and development, JK BMS prides itself on delivering products that are not only cutting-edge but also customizable to fit the specific needs of their clients. Their BMS solutions are popular in EVs, portable electronics, and renewable energy storage systems.

Product Range and Capabilities

JBD

JBD’s product lineup is impressive, focusing on smart BMS solutions that are adaptable to various battery types, including LiFePO4, NMC, and LTO chemistries. Their BMS products often come with features such as:

  • High precision measurements for voltage, current, and temperature
  • Advanced algorithms for state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) estimations
  • Wireless communication capabilities for monitoring and control
  • Enhanced safety features, including short circuit, overcharge, and deep discharge protection

JK BMS

JK BMS offers a wide variety of BMS solutions designed to meet the demands of different battery applications. Their products stand out for:

  • Flexible configuration options for series and parallel connections of battery cells
  • Comprehensive data monitoring and logging features
  • Strong emphasis on safety with multiple protection layers against overvoltage, undervoltage, overcurrent, and overheating
  • Compatibility with various communication protocols for easy integration into existing systems

Technology and Innovation

JBD tends to emphasize the integration of AI and smart technologies into their BMS to enhance performance and safety. Their approach includes predictive analytics for maintenance and fault detection, which can significantly extend the lifespan of battery systems.

JK BMS, while also innovative, focuses more on the robustness and reliability of their systems. Their BMS are built to withstand harsh environments and conditions, ensuring consistent performance and safety across a broad range of applications.

Customer Support and Customization

Both JBD and JK BMS provide extensive customer support and offer customization options to meet specific client needs. However, JBD takes a slightly more bespoke approach, working closely with clients to develop custom solutions that integrate seamlessly with their existing technology and applications.

JK BMS, while offering customization, tends to have a more standardized product line, making it easier for clients to select and integrate BMS solutions without the need for extensive customization.

Conclusion

Choosing between JBD and JK BMS ultimately depends on your specific needs, application requirements, and preferences. If you prioritize cutting-edge technology, smart features, and customization, JBD might be the right choice for you. On the other hand, if you’re looking for robustness, reliability, and a product that’s easy to integrate into a variety of applications, JK BMS could be the better fit.

Regardless of your choice, both brands offer high-quality BMS solutions that can enhance the performance and safety of your battery systems. The key is to carefully consider your requirements and make an informed decision based on the strengths of each brand.

Lithium Battery-school
Maximizing Lifespan of LiFePO4 Batteries: The Case for 0.25C Charge and Discharge Rates

Maximizing Lifespan of LiFePO4 Batteries: The Case for 0.25C Charge and Discharge Rates

In the realm of renewable energy storage, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries have emerged as a cornerstone due to their exceptional balance of safety, longevity, and energy density. A critical aspect often overlooked by users is the impact of charge and discharge rates on the lifespan of these batteries. This article delves into the technical rationale behind optimizing battery bank sizing for a maximum charge and discharge rate of 0.25C, a practice that can potentially double the lifespan of LiFePO4 batteries from 10 to 20 years.

Understanding C-Rate

The ‘C-rate’ is a measure used to describe the charge and discharge current of a battery. A 1C rate means the battery can be charged or discharged at a current equal to its rated capacity in one hour. Consequently, a 0.25C rate for a 100 Ah battery translates to charging or discharging at 25 amps, where the battery is neither overworked nor underutilized, ensuring optimal performance and longevity.

The Impact of Charge and Discharge Rates on Lifespan

LiFePO4 batteries are known for their robustness and longevity, typically rated for around 2000 to 5000 cycles at a 1C discharge rate. However, when operating these batteries at lower C-rates, the cycle life can be significantly extended. A study published in the Journal of Power Sources highlighted that reducing the charge and discharge rates can diminish the mechanical stress on the electrodes and limit the degradation of the electrolyte, both of which are pivotal for enhancing battery life (Zhang et al., 2019).

Further supporting this, research in the Electrochimica Acta indicated that operating LiFePO4 batteries at lower C-rates leads to a more uniform distribution of ions across the electrodes, minimizing the likelihood of localized overcharging or discharging that can cause irreversible damage (Liu et al., 2020).

Case for a 0.25C Rate

Setting the maximum charge and discharge rate at 0.25C is not arbitrary. It is based on empirical evidence suggesting that at this rate, the thermal and mechanical stresses on LiFePO4 cells are minimized, thereby reducing the rate of capacity loss over time. A pivotal study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated that LiFePO4 batteries operated at reduced C-rates exhibited significantly lower capacity fade, with an estimated lifespan extension from 10 years to potentially 20 years under optimal conditions (Smith et al., 2021).

Furthermore, operating at 0.25C also means the battery experiences less heat generation during charge and discharge cycles. Excessive heat is a known accelerant of battery degradation, affecting both the electrodes and the electrolyte. By maintaining operations at a lower rate, the thermal management requirements are less stringent, further contributing to the longevity of the battery system.

Practical Considerations for Sizing Battery Banks

To leverage the benefits of a 0.25C charge and discharge rate, proper sizing of the battery bank is crucial. This involves not just calculating the daily energy usage but also accommodating for the reduced C-rate, thereby ensuring that the battery bank can meet the energy demands without exceeding this rate. For instance, a system designed to utilize a 100 Ah capacity at a 1C rate would require a 400 Ah capacity to operate optimally at 0.25C, fundamentally altering the design and sizing considerations of the energy storage system.

Conclusion

The advice to size LiFePO4 battery banks for a maximum charge and discharge rate of 0.25C is grounded in a solid foundation of electrochemical research and real-world application. This approach not only optimizes the performance and safety of the battery system but also significantly extends its usable life, potentially doubling its lifespan. For consumers and industries looking to maximize their investment in LiFePO4 battery technology, adhering to this guideline is a prudent strategy that will yield long-term benefits, both financially and environmentally.

References

  • Zhang, Y., et al. (2019). ‘Impact of C-rate on the degradation mechanisms of lithium iron phosphate batteries.’ Journal of Power Sources.
  • Liu, W., et al. (2020). ‘Effects of C-rate on the performance and degradation of lithium iron phosphate batteries.’ Electrochimica Acta.
  • Smith, K., et al. (2021). ‘Extended Lifespan of LiFePO4 Batteries under Reduced Charge and Discharge Rates.’ National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Report.

By considering the scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lower charge and discharge rates, it becomes clear that the initial sizing and investment in a larger capacity LiFePO4 battery bank is not only justified but essential for anyone looking to optimize the lifespan and efficiency of their energy storage solutions.

News Lithium Battery-school
Comparing the most popular 300AH Lifepo4 cells

Comparing the EVE LF304 to the LF280, LF280K, and LF280k v3, MB30, MB31 we can analyze the key differences and similarities among these popular Lifepo4 cells.

You can also find out why the next generation of MB (Mr Big) cells is better than the last, mostly due to the new stacking technique being employed by just a small number of LFP manufacturers. At this stage CATL, EVE have next generation cells, not yet freely available. But in the near future, you will be able to purchase these cells if you don’t buy them from the grey markets.

EVE LF304

EVE 304ah 300Ah 310Ah 320Ah
LF304 EVE

The EVE LF304 has a cycle life of 4000 at 0.5C/0.5C. Giving it an estimated lifespan of up to 11 years.
The EVE LF304 is EVE’s high power cell, with thicker coatings,

Capacity: 304Ah
Nominal Voltage: 3.2V

Production technology – Winding

LF280

LF280

The EVE LF280 has a cycle life of 4000 cycles at 0.5C/0.5C. Giving it an estimated lifespan of up to 11 years
Capacity: 280Ah
Nominal Voltage: 3.2V

Maximum Continuous Discharge 1C
Production technology – Winding

LF280K

eve lf280k 2
EVE LF280K

The EVE LF280K has a cycle life of 6000 cycles at 0.5C/0.5C. Giving it an estimated lifespan of up to 16 years
Capacity: 280Ah
Nominal Voltage: 3.2V

Cycle Life @ 0.5C : 6000 Cycles
Production technology – Winding

LF280k v3

The EVE LF280K has a cycle life of 6000 cycles (A+ Grade 8000 Cycles) at 0.5C/0.5C. Giving it an estimated lifespan of up to 16 years
Capacity: 280Ah
Nominal Voltage: 3.2V

Cycle Life: 6000 Cycles (A+ Grade 8000 Cycles)
Maximum Continuous Discharge 1C
Recommended Discharge 0.5C

Production technology – Stacking

MB30

The EVE MB30 has a cycle life of 10000 cycles at 0.5C/0.5C. Giving it an estimated lifespan of up to 20-25 years
Capacity: 306Ah
Expected Real measured capacity when new 320+AH
Nominal Voltage: 3.2V

Cycle Life: 10000 Cycles
Maximum Continuous Discharge 1C
Recommended Discharge 0.5C

Production technology – Stacking

MB31

The EVE MB31 has a cycle life of 8000 cycles at 0.5C/0.5C. Giving it an estimated lifespan of up to 20-25 years
Capacity: 314Ah
Expected Real measured capacity when new 330+AH
Nominal Voltage: 3.2V
Advertised Cycle Life: 8000 Cycles

Maximum Continuous Discharge 1C
Recommended Discharge 0.5C

Production technology – Stacking

Stacking vs Winding

Longer life span
The stacked battery cell has more tabs, the shorter the electron transmission distance, and the smaller the resistance, so the internal resistance of the stacked battery cell can be reduced, and the heat generated by the battery cell is small. The winding is prone to deformation, expansion and other problems, which affect the attenuation performance of the battery.

Comparing process of stacking battery vs winding

Stacking
Winding
Energy density
Higher. Higher space utilization.
Lower. There is a C angle, and the larger the capacity, the lower the utilization rate.
Structural stability
Higher. The internal structure is uniform and the reaction rate is relatively low.
Lower. There is a C angle, which leads to uneven rate of internal reaction of charging and discharging.
Fast charging adaptation
Better. The multi-pole plates are connected in parallel, the internal resistance is low, and the charge and discharge of large current can be completed in a short time, and the rate performance of the battery is high.
Poor. During the charge and discharge process, the degradation rate of the active material at the high temperature position is accelerated, and the other positions are rapidly attenuated.
Safety
The risk is low. Stress distribution is more consistent, which keeps the interface flat and more stable.
Lower. Potential problems such as powder shedding, burrs, pole piece expansion, and separator stretching are easy to occur at the bend.
Cycle life
Longer. Low internal resistance, relieve battery heating during fast charging, improve battery chemical system stability and prolong service life.
Shorter. It is easy to deform in the later stage, which in turn affects the cycle life of the battery.
Productivity
Large-capacity batteries are generally low, mainly 6-8PPM.
Higher, generally at 12-13PPM.
Yield
Low, the glitch problem is prominent.
Higher automation, higher yield rate, higher number of pole pieces.
Process maturity
Low, the number of pole pieces is large, and the investment in equipment is large.
Higher, fewer pole pieces, mature equipment and low investment cost.

Summary of new technology

Technologies such as low-expansion anode materials, full tab design, electrode surface treatment, and flexible electrode forming help resolve liquid infiltration challenges for large cells, enabling comprehensive safety protection and high cycle life through heat insulation, diffusion prevention, pressure relief

What to choose for a battery with the longest lifespan.

EVE MB30 Automotive A+ verified cells directly supplied from EVE, not via a third party, not via Alibaba, and not from most resellers and battery pack manufacturers including almost all battery builders in Australia and China, unless they can provide you with a) the official eve delivery report for the cell purchase, and b) evidence that the QR code is genuine and not re-lasered.
The B grade to A grade problem is going to be larger with the new models the LF280K v3 which is actually the MB30

A genuine QR code should be shiny behind the data that has been printed.

CleanQR wpp1710016061418
QR EVE LF304
News
CATL EnerOne

We can supply a range of CATL EnerOne storage systems. Are you looking for a commercial grade energy storage solution?

Contact us for pricing and availability, Generally a lead time of about 90-120 days is required for CATL to be able to supply these kinds of systems.

Having modular nominal capacity of 232.96Kw, 372.7 kWh and 407.34kWh depending on the cell chosen, 280, 285 and 306ah with a floor space of just 1.69 square meters. The system is suitable for inverters with operating voltages ranging from 600 to 1500 volts. EnerOne can be efficiently shipped as a complete product, which greatly reduces on-site installation costs and commissioning time.  

EnerOne can be used flexibly in outdoor applications, thanks to the protection level IP 66 of the main components and the adaptability to ambient temperature range of -30 to +55 ℃. It has passed various critical tests on the cell, module and rack level. EnerOne has obtained UL9540A test report, and in this test there’s no fire and no extra thermal propagation without the help from fire suppression system.

EnerOne CATL 372.7

High level of safety

  • LFP batteries with high thermal stability
  • Protection level of IP66 to meet the requirements of outdoor applications
  • Resistance up to C5 corrosion level, with 20-year reliability
  • Separate fire protection system

Long service life

  • Available for integration with CATL’s advanced technologies (e.g. optional cell with super-long cycling up to 12,000 cycles)
  • Integrated frequency conversion liquid-cooling system, with cell temperature difference limited to 3ºC, and a 33% increase of life expectancy

High integration

  • Modular design, compatible with 600 – 1,500V system
  • Separate water cooling system for worry-free cooling
  • Modular design with a high energy density, saving the floor space by 50%
  • Transportation after assembly, reducing on-site installation costs and commissioning time

The EnerOne+Rackconsists of following parts: batteries, BMS, FSS and TMS, which are integrated together to keep the normal working of the Rack.

Battery

The capacity of cellis 306Ah,1P52S cells integrated in one module,8 modules integrated into one Rack.As the core of the energy storage system, the battery releases and stores energy.

BMS

BMSadopts the distributed scheme, through the three-level (CSC–SBMU–MBMU)architecture to control the BESS,andensure the stable operation of the energy storage system.It canmanageenergy absorption and release, the thermal management system andauxiliarypower supplyaccording to the detectedinformation:battery voltage, currentandtemperature.It canmonitorhigh voltage DC/AC security, diagnosis and analysis faultsaccording informationfrom various detectors and dry-contacts.Andit cankeep communicationwith PCS and EMSthrough CAN.

FSS

FSS consists of smoke detectorand heatdetector(Orheatdetector and gasdetector), the aerosol, the dry pipe(optional).FSSundertakesfunctions :monitorthe thermalrun-awayrisks ofRackthroughthedetectors, extinguishthe thermal run awayin an early stage, andcontrol the loss to minimum. The FSS is independent with any other systemandit is the security guard of EnerOne+Rack.

TMS

TMS consists of one powerful chiller, one PTC heaterandthe liquid cooling pipe distributed in each battery module. The TMS will keep the battery work at best state and reach longest life.

Controlbox

Control box mainly includes detection device, protection device and AC/DC power supply. The structure is shown as follows.

DC Side Data
Product ModelR08306P05L31
P-Rate0.5P
Cell
Cell typeLFP
Cell capacity306Ah
Cell Voltage range2.5-3.65V
Cell rated Energy979.2Wh
System
Configuration1P416S
Rated Energy407.34 kWh
Rated Voltage1331.2 VDC
Voltage Range1040~1500 VDC
Rated Charging Current153A
Maximum Charging Current195.8A,<1min
Rated Charging Power203.67kW
Rated Discharging Current153A
Maximum Discharging Current195.8A,<1min
Rated Discharging Power203.67kW
AuxiliaryPower&Communication
Product ModelR08306P05L31
P-Rate0.5P
Auxiliary Power1 for BMSVoltageL+N+PE/220V/110V±10%,
Range50/60HZ
PowerMax.135W
Rated Current2.3A
 Inrush≤6A,<1S
Current
Auxiliary Power2 for coolingunitVoltageL+N+PE/220V±20%,50/60HZ
Range
PowerMax.3kW(Continuous)
Rated Current10A
Inrush≤12.5A,<1ms
Current
Auxiliary Power3 for Fire FSSVoltage24VDC
Range
Power0.003W(Standby state)
27.3W(Alarm status)
Current0.125mA(Standby state)
1.1375A(Alarm status)
Communication ProtocolCAN, Modbus/TCP
MechanicalData
Product ModelR08306P05L31
TransportationLand or sea transportation
Size2348mm(H)*1390mm(W)*1344.1mm(D)
Weight3600±100kg
ColorRAL7035
IP LevelIP56(Battery Room)
IP23(Electrical Room)
IP66(Control Box)
IP66(Battery Modules)
IP26(Chiller Unit)
Environmentcondition
Charge Temperature Range-25ºC…+55ºC
Discharge Temperature Range-25ºC…+55ºC
Storage Temperature Range-30ºC…+60ºC
Application Altitude≤4000m
Relative Humidity0~95%(non-condensing)
Degree of Anti-corrosion of Battery UnitC5
Seismic LevelIEEE693-2018 Moderate design level
Lithium Battery-school News
Next Generation LiFePo4 Cells – Technical Assessment

Energy storage cells can store electrical energy and release it when needed, such as during peak demand or power outages. They can also help balance the grid, reduce carbon emissions, and increase energy efficiency. Energy storage cells have various applications, such as home energy storage, grid-scale energy storage, electric vehicles, and portable devices.

Let’s dive into these four topics and see how they will ensure LiFePo4 and other relevant battery storage chemistries, will become increasingly more affordable on a TCO basis.

Increased capacity, competition in mass production

One of the main challenges for energy storage cells is to increase their capacity, which means the amount of energy they can store per unit volume or weight. Higher capacity means higher energy density, which can reduce the cost and space requirements of energy storage systems. Higher capacity also means longer duration, which can extend the operating time of energy storage systems.

Many energy storage cell manufacturers have been developing and releasing high-capacity products in recent years, especially in the lithium-ion battery sector. For example, EVE has released information about the upcoming LF560K energy storage battery. The battery capacity is at least 560Ah (reported to be as high as 628ah), twice that of LF280K, and the energy of a single battery reaches 1.792kWh (reportedly 2000wh, also known as 2kwh per cell)

EVE 280ah 304ah
LF560K-560k-EVE-LFP-Lifepo4
winston wb lyp700aha lifeypo4 3
winston-wb-lyp700aha-lifeypo4

We should quickly mention that Winston Thundersky has been producing larger format cells such as the 700ah, 1000ah and 10000ah for a long time, but the competitiveness in terms of price and weight is being left for dead by the new generation of LFP manufacturers such as CATL, BYD, GOTION, EVE, HITHIUM, Envision AESC, Great Power, REPT, Narada and energy storage battery cell companies have successively released 300Ah and above capacity battery products . While the capacity is increasing, mass production and delivery of 300Ah and above capacity batteries have also started. It is worth mentioning that Envision AESC has achieved mass production and delivery of 305Ah energy storage cells in the past two years, and recently released 315Ah energy storage cells within the same size and format.

Right now in 2024, the 173 x 73 x 207 mm battery is the most popular for DIY because it has the best cost per kwh. Due to the competition in this area. In late 2023, Envision lead the pack with pricing that was about 50% of the going prices from 2021-2023.

Mass production and delivery of high-capacity batteries can create economies of scale and reduce the cost per kWh of energy storage systems. It can also increase the competitiveness of energy storage cell manufacturers in the global market and meet the growing demand for large-scale energy storage projects.

Energy storage cell stacking vs winding comparison

Lithium battery Stacking vs Winding

Another challenge for energy storage cells is to optimize their structure and manufacturing process to improve their performance and reliability. One of the key factors that affect the structure and process of energy storage cells is whether they use stacking or winding methods to arrange the electrodes and separators inside the cell.

Stacking is a method that stacks the positive and negative electrodes and separators layer by layer to form a cell. Winding is a method that winds the positive and negative electrodes and separators into a spiral shape to form a cell. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages.

Stacking can achieve higher packing density and higher capacity than winding, but it requires more precise alignment and cutting of electrodes and separators, which increases the complexity and cost of manufacturing. Winding can achieve better uniformity and consistency than stacking, but it may cause more internal resistance and heat generation, which reduces the efficiency and safety of the cell.

Different manufacturers may choose different methods according to their own technical advantages and market positioning. For example, EVE uses stacking for its LF560K battery, while Envision AESC uses winding for its 315Ah battery . The choice of stacking or winding may also depend on the shape and size of the cell, which we will discuss next.

Longer cycle life

The number of lugs of stacking batteries is twice that of winding, and the more the tabs, the shorter the electron transmission distance and the smaller the resistance.

It is well known that when the voltage and time are constant, the larger the resistance, the less heat generated, and the smaller the resistance, the smaller the heat generated, so the service life of stacking batteries is relatively longer than winding batteries to compare stacking battery vs winding battery. This is the main reason we have seen cell life increase from 2000 cycles to 12000 cycles. These numbers are in ideal conditions, which almost certainly are unachievable in almost all DIY battery projects.

Stacking battery has a Lower yield rate, which is why there are so many B grade cells for sale

The winding battery is easy to cut and has a high pass rate. Each battery cell only needs to cut the positive and negative electrodes once, which is less difficult. However, compared stacking battery vs winding, each battery has dozens of small pieces in stacking cutting, and each small piece has four cut surfaces, which is prone to defective products.

Lithium battery Stacking vs Winding 2

A recent industry leak stated “the iPhone 15 line arriving in the coming months would be equipped with batteries with stacked structure. In standard ones, the three main elements (anode, cathode and separator) are three thin sheets rolled up on top of each other. In this type of battery, however, the separator is folded in a zigzag and takes up less space in the battery, and therefore there is more space for increase its capacity due to higher energy density. Furthermore, this type of arrangement ensures that the temperatures are dissipated more evenly, avoiding concentrating them in a single space and prolonging their longevity”.

The size of energy storage cells

The size of energy storage cells is another important factor that affects their performance and application. The size of a cell determines its volume, weight, surface area, heat dissipation, internal resistance, power density, etc. Generally speaking, larger cells have higher capacity but lower power density than smaller cells. Larger cells also have more challenges in heat management and safety than smaller cells.

The size of energy storage cells can be measured by their diameter and height (for cylindrical cells) or length and width (for prismatic or pouch cells). The common sizes for lithium-ion batteries range from 18650 (18mm diameter x 65mm height) to 21700 (21mm diameter x 70mm height) for cylindrical cells, and from 20Ah to 560Ah for prismatic or pouch cells.

Different sizes of cells may suit different applications of energy storage systems. For example, smaller cells may be more suitable for portable devices or electric vehicles that require high power density and fast charging/discharging. Larger cells may be more suitable for home energy storage or grid-scale energy storage that require high capacity and long duration.

The size of energy storage cells may also change with the development of technology and market demand. For example, some manufacturers are developing solid-state batteries that can achieve higher energy density and safety than liquid or gel electrolyte batteries, which may enable smaller and lighter cells . Some manufacturers are also developing modular and scalable energy storage systems that can use different sizes of cells according to the needs of customers .

Industry calls for long cycle of battery cells

The last trend we will discuss is the demand for long cycle life of energy storage cells. Cycle life is the number of times a cell can be charged and discharged before its capacity drops below a certain threshold (usually 80% of its initial capacity). Cycle life is an important indicator of the durability and cost-effectiveness of energy storage cells.

Long cycle life can extend the lifespan of energy storage systems and reduce the need for replacement or maintenance. Long cycle life can also reduce the environmental impact of energy storage systems by reducing the waste and emissions generated by cell production and disposal. Long cycle life can also increase the value of energy storage systems by enabling more applications and services, such as frequency regulation, peak shaving, demand response, etc.

The cycle life of energy storage cells depends on many factors, such as the chemistry, structure, process, operation, and management of the cells. Different types of cells may have different cycle life characteristics. For example, lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries have longer cycle life than lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) batteries, but lower energy density . Different applications of energy storage systems may also have different cycle life requirements. For example, home energy storage may require longer cycle life than electric vehicles, because home energy storage may operate more frequently and continuously than electric vehicles.

Many energy storage cell manufacturers have been improving their cycle life performance by optimizing their materials, designs, processes, and systems. For example, Envision AESC claims that its 315Ah battery can achieve more than 10,000 cycles at 80% depth of discharge (DOD) . TYCORUN ENERGY claims that its home energy storage products use lithium iron phosphate batteries, which have a deep cycle of more than 6000 times with low self-discharge rate .

Conclusion

In summary, we have discussed four trends in the development of energy storage cells: increased capacity, competition in mass production; energy storage cell stacking vs winding comparison; discussion on the size of energy storage cells; economy calls for long cycle of battery cells. These trends reflect the technological innovation and market demand in the energy storage industry, which is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Energy storage cells are key components for renewable energy systems, which can provide clean, reliable, and affordable electricity for various applications.

We hope this blog post has given you some insights into the current state and future direction of energy storage cells. If you are interested in learning more about energy storage products and solutions, please visit our website or contact us for more information.

Here is a nice professional production video by EVE Energy. Footage is taken about 18 months ago.
In their most advanced factory, which produces LF280K

Lithium Battery-school Blog
AS/NZS3001.2:2022 Electrical system safety in RVs (Caravans, Motor Homes, and Camper trailers)
What is the new standard?

AS/NZS3001.2:2022 outlines requirements and guidelines for various aspects of the electrical system in Caravans, RVs, and Camper trailers. The standard considers wiring, inverters, solar panels, and batteries. The standard also requires batteries to comply with AS IEC 62619.

What is AS IEC 62619 Certification?

AS IEC 62619 Certification is a globally recognized standard for lithium batteries, developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).  IEC 62619 specifies requirements and tests for the safe operation of secondary lithium cells and batteries used in industrial applications, including stationary applications. 

This certification assures consumers that the battery they are purchasing has undergone rigorous testing and meets all the necessary requirements for safe operation. 

What is driving the change in standards?

The change in standards is driven by the need to improve safety and consistency in the storage of batteries in RVs. The new standards, AS/NZS3001.2:2022, have been developed in consultation with electrical experts and industry professionals to address safety concerns and ensure standardization in the industry.

When are they enforced from?

The new standards are enforceable from 18 November 2023.

Who does it apply to?

The standards apply to everyone buying or using a new recreational vehicle build but are of particular importance to manufacturers and importers of recreational vehicles.

Do I need to comply to the new standard?

The standard applies for any new installations from the 18th of November 2023 (the effective date). The new standard applies to any new electrical installations (vehicle builds) conducted after the effective date, but not to existing installations. Installations prior to the effective date will be assessed against the standards at the time of installation so long as they meet basic safety standards.

Typically, repairs may be conducted using methods, fittings and fixtures that were acceptable at the time of the original installation.   Alternatively, currently available methods fittings and fixtures available as direct replacements may be used, providing that basic safety requirements are met. 

Alterations, e.g. replacing lead acid batteries with lithium batteries, are to be completed in line with the current (new) standards and shall not compromise the remainder of the installation.  

We recommend consulting a professional and ensuring the installation complies with the new standard.

Will it affect my existing installation?

The new standards are enforceable on new RVs, so they are unlikely to affect your existing installation. However, if you plan to make any alterations or updates to your RV’s electrical system, including battery system, it is advisable to consult with a qualified professional to ensure compliance with safety standards.

In a nutshell, what are the key changes?

The key changes include requirements for the installation, mounting and wiring of electrical systems into RVs including inverters, solar, wiring and batteries. With respect to batteries the changes focus on minimising the potential for adverse events by considering protection against harmful gasses and fumes and to prevent their build up, fire, damage from water ingress, damage from physical impact and to make sure they are installed and operating withing the batteries specifications.

Do all LiFePo4 Australia lithium batteries comply with the new standard?

The Lifepo4 Australia range of batteries, either comply or are under application with IEC62619, a requirement of the new standard. If these batteries are installed in accordance with the regulations, they are considered to be meeting the standard. You must check the website and or ask us if you require your battery purchase to be used in accordance with this standard.

From the standards

(a) be installed externally, i.e. behind a wall, compartment or barrier that prevents the egress of gases into the habitable area; and
(b) not enter the habitable area of the structure; and
(c) be installed to operate within the manufacturer’s defined operating temperatures, including IP rating; and
(d) be installed in a suitable battery container where the battery manufacturer has not provided encapsulated cells.

What do the standards say about lithium batteries in caravan/camper trailers?

The new regulations stipulate that a lithium battery cannot be installed in a habitable living area, such as inside a caravan or camper trailer, unless it is placed in a sealed enclosure, or the installation location is sealed off from the habitable area and the sealed off area is vented to the exterior environment. 

Solar panels

AS/NZS 3001.2:2022 Electrical Installations Standard also covers the use of solar panels. One significant change to the standard is the requirement for individual fusing and isolation points prior to the panels being connected in parallel. This is to prevent one faulty panel from taking out the entire string, which could lead to a fire. With individual fusing, any faulty panel will blow the singular fuse, and the rest of the system will continue to operate as it should.

How do I get a copy of these regulations / can you send me a copy of them?

You can obtain a copy of AS/NZS3001.2:2022 by purchasing it from Standards Australia. Or alternatively, you can ensure you installer is qualified and is following the new standards by asking them if they comply.

Where do I get more information about these regulations?

Can the batteries be mounted on the outside of the caravan (i.e. Chassis)?

Yes, as this is not classed as a habitable environment, lithium batteries can be mounted on the exterior of the caravan. When installing outside the vehicle it is important to ensure that the installation ensures the batteries are operated within their specifications. The installation must be protected from physical damage, operating within its temperature range, adequately IP rated to protect against water and dust etc. 

How do I install batteries within the standard if the batteries are to be mounted inside the caravan?

When installing batteries inside the caravan while adhering to the standard, it is essential to place the batteries within a sealed enclosure, with venting directing gases outside of any habitable areas whilst also ensuring that the enclosure (venting port) is environmentally protected. The enclosure must provide access for installation and maintenance and must have effective seals. A screwdriver or special tool must be required to access the enclosure. Whilst the standards do not provide specific guidance on the material that should be used to construct this enclosure it should be suitable to provide a sturdy home for the batteries and survive the roads conditions that the Caravan/RV is designed for.

What’s the difference between Lead Acid and Lithium battery installations?

Lead acid (LA) batteries are also required to be sealed off from the habitable area and to be vented externally. Because LA batteries release gasses that are lighter than air they need two vents, one at the top and one at the bottom of the enclosure. An enclosure that is design specially for Lithium batteries, i.e., one has one vent must be clearly labelled as only being suitable for lithium batteries and to not install LA batteries in the enclosure.  

Are lithium batteries safe to use?

Lithium batteries with an in-built BMS that monitors and balances individual cell voltages, monitors charge voltage and current and ensures the battery does not drop below an acceptable charge level are safe to use when installed and maintained correctly. We always recommend the use of LFP Lifepo4 chemistry as it is much safer than NCM, NCA and similar chemistries which include Nickel and Cobalt.

What are the repercussions of installing non-approved lithium after Nov 18?

As with any non-conformance to Australian Standards, the vehicle in question can be defected and any manufacturer or importer of non-compliant vehicles may be prosecuted to the extent of the law.

What about in-vehicle situations? Can batteries be installed in-cabin or in the engine bay still due to these standards?

The changes to AS/NZS 3001.2:2022 do not explicitly consider in-vehicle installations unless they are installed in a habitable area, however the recommendations on installation including gas venting, fire, physical and environmental protection are still valid for all installations.

Residual Current Device (RCD)

Inverters must be installed using a Residual Current Device (RCD) which will provide protection in a similar manner to all AC wiring which is installed with an RCD at the input to the RV. This would need to be a separate RCD and labelled appropriately that an inverter or and inverter/charger is installed.  The old way of just buying an off the shelf inverter and connecting it to your battery stored under the bed or seat and then plugging in an extension lead is to be thing of the past.  The unit must be accessible and have a visible light to identify the status. 

Solar Panels

Solar panels must have over current protection devices – fusing must be installed on the positive cable at the actual panels where there is circulating current.  Also to note is that cable suitable for solar panel installations must be used – eg. the cable must be double insulated and also IP rated for the harshness of the Australian sun and the environmental conditions. RVers should give due regard to any portable panels that they decide to connect to their system in that these should also be fused and incorporate appropriate cables. 

Fusing

Fusing must also be provided to protect batteries and this again, should be as close as practicable to the battery itself and on the positive wire.  We would recommend the slow blow blade fuses generally used in automotive applications.  These allow for some momentary or temp over current or inrush and are not designed to protect highly sensitive electrical equipment but will certainly blow when there is sustained over current.  In the case of RV installations it is used not only to prevent damage to appliances and chargers etc but also to prevent the wiring insulation from melting as most manufacturers will only used the minimum wiring gauge require to meet voltage drop.

From the standards

(a) be installed externally, i.e. behind a wall, compartment or barrier that prevents the egress of gases into the habitable area; and
(b) not enter the habitable area of the structure; and
(c) be installed to operate within the manufacturer’s defined operating temperatures, including IP rating; and
(d) be installed in a suitable battery container where the battery manufacturer has not provided encapsulated cells.

Further Reading and more detailed analysis of the Standard
Sourced from Our Blog New Standards for Fitment of Batteries to Caravans – Electrical Installations Standard (AS/NZS 3001.2:2022) (12voltdirect.com.au)

AS/NZS 3001.2:2022 Electrical installations – Connectable electrical installations and supply arrangements; Part 2: Connectable electrical Installations is a key Australian Standard, covering electrical installations in recreational vehicles (as well as other connectable installations used for accommodation, habitation or commercial purposes).  This Standard has recently undergone a major revision and was published on 18 November 2022.

Caravan Industry Association of Australia holds a seat on the AS/NZS 3001 Standards Australia committee (through Jason Arter) and has worked in collaboration with our member state associations and industry throughout this standard revision project.

The following overview provides a summary of some of the key changes in this revision and is provided as general guidance and information based on our understanding of the electrical Standard requirements.  However, it is important to note that this does not provide an exhaustive list of changes to the standard.  It is strongly recommended that industry businesses make their own investigations and explore the changes to AS/NZS 3001.2:2022 with regard to the recreational vehicles they are producing.  It is also important to ensure that the relevant personnel (e.g. contract or staff electricians, vehicle designers etc.) within your business are up to date with these changes.

There is a significant administration change with the separation of AS/NZS 3001 into 2 parts:

  • AS/NZS 3001.1, Electrical installations — Connectable electrical installations and supply arrangements, Part 1: Site supplies for connectable electrical installations
  • AS/NZS 3001.2, Electrical installations — Connectable electrical installations and supply arrangements, Part 2: Connectable electrical installations

This summary only addresses Part 2 of the Standard (AS/NZS 3001.2) relating to installations within vehicles and relocatable units.

Within Part 2, the Standard has been divided into separate sections that address specific types of connectable electrical installations.  This assists readers to locate the information relevant to their particular installation.  It may mean that a section is not applicable to your installation, depending on the product and features incorporated.

  • Section 1 provides the scope, inclusions, and exclusions of this Standard. The definitions and alterations and repairs have been expanded;
  • Section 2 provides for the external supply connection and onboard supply installation requirements applicable to a connectable electrical installation;
  • Section 3 provides the installation requirements for relocatable units;
  • Section 4 provides the installation requirements for recreational vehicles and non-recreational vehicles;
  • Section 5 provides the installation requirements for extra-low voltage wiring systems and equipment in all connectable electrical installations; and
  • Section 6 provides verification requirements in all connectable electrical installations.

If you are using the Standard for installations in recreational vehicles, refer to sections 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 – for installations in relocatable units, refer to sections 1,2,3,5 and 6.

 

Key Changes Summary
One of the most significant changes to the Standard is the inclusion of a section outlining requirements for extra-low voltage d.c. electrical installations (Section 5).  Within this section are significant new requirements for batteries, solar panels (and other sources of supply), wiring, electrical equipment and accessories.

Batteries
Batteries should be rechargeable and have a minimum battery capacity of 40Ah at a 20h discharge rate.

Securing of batteries – no greater than 25mm movement under a pulling force of twice the battery weight.

Clearance to metallic service lines – 300mm clearance around battery terminals, or appropriate shielding in place.  E.g. to gas, diesel, water lines or similar.

Lead-Acid batteries (all types)

  • External location:
    • Open to environment or in a vented battery compartment;
    • Must include a spill tray that can hold at least 20% of the electrolyte held by the battery; and
    • Battery compartment vents must be outside the habitable area.
  • Internal location:
    • Must be in a battery compartment that is vented to the exterior of the vehicle; and
    • Must include a spill tray that can hold at least 20% of the electrolyte held by the battery.
  • Battery compartment ventilation is required via one of three prescribed methods.

Lithium ion batteries (all types)

  • Location – external to the living area, i.e. behind a wall, compartment or barrier that prevents the ingress of gasses to the habitable area.
  • Must be provided with a battery management safety system:
    • Monitors voltage, current and temperature of the battery; and
    • Automatically disconnects for critical conditions.
  • Must be provided with a visible monitoring device:
    • Must display state of charge, may display voltage; and
    • May use wired or wireless communication direct to the battery management safety system.
  • Installer should consult with the battery manufacturer for compartment design and means of venting that are appropriate for the type of battery.

Solar
Renewable energy sources:

  • Installed only for charging batteries;
  • Only generate extra-low voltage; and
  • Must have a device which prevents overcharging of the battery(ies).

Photovoltaic (PV) array installations shall be installed as per this standard (AS/NZS 3001.2).  Further guidance may be sought from AS/NZS 5033.

Overcurrent protection devices shall be provided at the PV array.

PV modules must comply with all national design rules for road safety (i.e. ADRs):

  • Height & width limits.
  • External projections.
  • Vehicle lighting – obstruction.
  • Strength of attachment – normal operation, emergency braking, crash scenario.

Recreational vehicle manufacturers who offer solar power systems are strongly encouraged to investigate the full details of the section on solar (and other renewable) energy sources.

Multiple sources of supply
An installation may be supplied from multiple sources – either external or on-board, and at either low voltage or extra-low voltage.

A changeover device that ensures only one source of supply can be connected at any given time must be provided on (or adjacent to) the switchboard:

  • Where the switchboard is mounted externally, provision is made for the changeover switch to be placed in a prominent position internally; and
  • Where a changeover switch is incorporated into a source of supply (e.g. inverter charger) a label shall be placed at the switchboard indicating the location the device.

When multiple sources of supply are present, low voltage socket outlets in the installation must be labelled to indicate the sources of supply.

Onboard Supplies – Inverters
All or part of the electrical installation may be supplied by an on-board source of supply, such as an inverter or inverter charger.

If an inverter (or inverter charger) is fitted:

  • Controls must be readily accessible;
  • Final sub-circuits supplied by an inverter or inverter charger must be protected by an RCD device. (For an isolated/EPB inverter this can be integral to the unit or external); and
  • The main switchboard must contain
    1. A warning label indicating the presence of an inverter; and
    2. A visible indicator showing the status of the inverter or inverter charger – active online or in standby mode.

Note: Where the switchboard is mounted externally, provision is made for these indications to be placed in a prominent position internally.

Extra-Low Voltage (12V d.c.) Wiring
Protection must be provided against mechanical damage, environment and other external influences:

  • Retention of wiring.
  • Enclosure.

Protect must be provided against physical contact with live parts:

  • Insulation or physical separation.

Wiring must be suitable for its intended use:

  • Current-carrying capacity.
  • Voltage drop.
  • Conductor size requirements.

Separation must be provided from low voltage (240V) wiring.

Another significant area of change in the standard relates to exclusion areas for electrical equipment and accessories.  Importantly, these restricted areas are applied to both low voltage (240V) and extra-low voltage (e.g. 12V d.c.) equipment and accessories.

Exclusion around gas cylinders
The requirements for this area have been aligned with the controlled areas of AS/NZS 5601.2 Gas Installations Standard.

In very broad summary, devices such as switches, motors, appliances cannot be located within a prescribed controlled area around gas cylinders or gas cylinder compartments.

Exceptions are made for electrical fittings and electrical wiring mounted on a drawbar of an RV whose primary function relates to propulsion or roadworthiness of a vehicle.  e.g. trailer plugs, stability controllers, road vehicle lighting.

Damp area exclusion zones – showers, external shower (sinks unchanged)
An exclusion zone has been applied around an external shower – similar to internal bathroom requirements.  Again, exceptions are made for equipment whose primary function relates to propulsion or roadworthiness of a vehicle.

Dimensions of the defined zones around an internal shower remain consistent with the previous standards.  Further clarification has been provided to address some of the typical door arrangements seen in current vehicle designs.  e.g. shower doors hinged part way along a door.

Cooker exclusion zone
The exclusion zone around an open cooktop has been updated to limit the exclusion area to a height above the cooker as far as the range hood or overhead cupboard (or ceiling if neither of these are applicable).  This is a variation from the corresponding zone in AS/NZS 3000, reducing the area that previously extended up surrounding walls, in recognition of the limited space for relocation of electrical equipment in a recreational vehicle setting.

AS/NZS 3001.2 acts to modify the requirements of AS/NZS 3000 in some key areas:

Appliance switching requirements – cooker, A/C, HWS
Appliances are required to be controlled by a switch that is readily identifiable and convenient for its intended use.

This requirement modifies the AS/NZS 3000 requirements relating to isolation switches for air conditioners, hot water services, and cooking appliances, such that these appliances are not required to have separate isolating devices.

Switchboard (main circuit breaker) clearances – in a cupboard
The requirements for a switchboard (or main circuit breaker) located in a cupboard have some key clarifications:

  • Maximum clearance in front of the switchboard (circuit breaker) is set at 600mm from the face of the device.  note: this modifies AS/NZS 3000 requirements that measure from the edge of an open door in some circumstances;
  • Maximum distance from the face of the device to a protruding bench (or another surface) is 600mm; and
  • Clearance from the face of a device to the front of the cupboard must be no more than 50mm.

This overview highlights some of the significant changes for consideration within your business.  Further technical bulletins will follow with more detail of some of these changes during the implementation phase of the Standard.

As AS/NZS 3001 is made mandatory by electrical legislation in each State and Territory.  While it is expected that each respective Regulatory Authority will honour the 12-month transitional provision, they may apply the new Standard requirements at an earlier time.  Caravan Industry Association of Australia and your state caravanning associations are working with the respective jurisdictions to confirm the details of transitional arrangements in each State, particularly around the timing for full implementation and enforcement of the new Standard. 

Blog Lithium Battery-school
Lifepo4 (Lithium) vs Lead-Acid

If you are looking for a reliable and efficient energy storage solution you might be wondering whether to choose lifepo4 or lead-acid batteries. Both types of batteries have their advantages and disadvantages, depending on your needs and preferences. In this article, we will compare lithium and lead-acid batteries in terms of performance, durability, cost, and environmental impact, to help you make an informed decision.

Performance

One of the most important factors to consider when choosing a battery is its performance, which includes its capacity, power, efficiency, and lifespan.

Capacity

The capacity of a battery is the amount of energy it can store and deliver. It is measured in amp-hours (Ah) or watt-hours (Wh). The higher the capacity, the longer the battery can run your appliances and devices.

Lithium batteries have a higher capacity than lead-acid batteries of the same size and weight. For example, a 100Ah lithium battery can provide 100Ah of usable energy, while a 100Ah lead-acid battery can only provide 50Ah of usable energy at best. This is because lithium batteries can be discharged up to 100% depth of discharge (DoD), while lead-acid batteries should not be discharged below 50% DoD to avoid damaging the cells.

Power

The power of a battery is the rate at which it can deliver energy. It is measured in watts (W) or amps (A). The higher the power, the faster the battery can charge and discharge, and the more appliances and devices it can run simultaneously.

Lithium batteries have a higher power than lead-acid batteries of the same capacity. For example, a 100Ah lithium battery can deliver up to 200A of continuous current, while a 100Ah lead-acid battery can only deliver up to 100A of continuous current. This is because lithium batteries have a lower internal resistance than lead-acid batteries, which means they can handle higher currents without overheating or losing efficiency.

Efficiency

The efficiency of a battery is the ratio of the energy output to the energy input. It is expressed as a percentage (%). The higher the efficiency, the less energy is wasted during charging and discharging.

Lithium batteries have a higher efficiency than lead-acid batteries. For example, a lithium battery can have an efficiency of up to 98%, while a lead-acid battery can have an efficiency of around 80%. This means that lithium batteries can store and deliver more energy from the same amount of solar input or generator output than lead-acid batteries.

Lifespan

The lifespan of a battery is the number of charge and discharge cycles it can undergo before its capacity drops below 80% of its original value. The higher the lifespan, the longer the battery can serve you before needing replacement.

Lithium batteries have a longer lifespan than lead-acid batteries. For example, a lithium battery can last up to 2000 cycles at 100% DoD, while a lead-acid battery can last up to 600 cycles at 50% DoD. This means that lithium batteries can endure more frequent and deeper cycling than lead-acid batteries without losing much capacity.

Durability

Another factor to consider when choosing a battery is its durability, which includes its resistance to temperature, vibration, and corrosion.

Temperature

The temperature of the environment where the battery is installed and operated can affect its performance and lifespan. Extreme temperatures can cause thermal stress, expansion, contraction, and chemical reactions that can damage the cells.

Lithium batteries are more resistant to temperature than lead-acid batteries. For example, lithium batteries can operate in a wider temperature range than lead-acid batteries, from -20°C to +60°C. They also have built-in battery management systems (BMS) that monitor and regulate the temperature of each cell to prevent overheating or freezing. Lead-acid batteries are more sensitive to temperature changes and require more ventilation and insulation to maintain optimal performance.

Vibration

The vibration of the vehicle or vessel where the battery is installed and operated can also affect its performance and lifespan. Excessive vibration can cause physical damage, loose connections, and internal short circuits that can reduce the capacity and power of the battery.

Lithium batteries are more resistant to vibration than lead-acid batteries. For example, lithium batteries are made of solid-state cells that are tightly packed and sealed in sturdy cases that prevent movement and leakage. They also have BMS that protect them from short circuits and overloads. Lead-acid batteries are made of liquid electrolyte and plates that are prone to spilling and sulfation under vibration.

Corrosion

The corrosion of the terminals and connectors of the battery can also affect its performance and lifespan. Corrosion can cause increased resistance, reduced conductivity, and poor contact that can reduce the capacity and power of the battery.

Lithium batteries are more resistant to corrosion than lead-acid batteries. For example, lithium batteries have stainless steel or brass terminals and connectors that are less likely to rust or oxidize than lead-acid batteries. They also have BMS that prevent overcharging and undercharging that can cause corrosion.

Cost

The cost of a battery is another factor to consider when choosing a battery. It includes the initial purchase price, the installation cost, the maintenance cost, and the replacement cost. But in 2024, its usually far cheaper per cycle to purchase a Lifepo4 battery. Usually 5-10 times cheaper or more.

Purchase Price

The purchase price of a battery is the amount of money you pay upfront to buy the battery. It is usually based on the capacity, power, and quality of the battery.

Lithium batteries have a higher purchase price than lead-acid batteries of the same capacity and power. For example, a 100Ah lithium battery can cost around $400-$600, while a 100Ah lead-acid battery can cost around $300-$600. This is because lithium batteries use more advanced and expensive materials and technologies than lead-acid batteries, but recently the competition of Lithium Iron Lifepo4 has lead to very similar prices

Installation Cost

The installation cost of a battery is the amount of money you pay to install the battery in your vehicle or vessel. It is usually based on the size, weight, and complexity of the battery.

Lithium batteries have a lower installation cost than lead-acid batteries of the same capacity and power. For example, a 100Ah lithium battery can weigh around 12kg and take up around 20L of space, while a 100Ah lead-acid battery can weigh around 30kg and take up around 40L of space. This means that lithium batteries are easier and cheaper to install than lead-acid batteries, especially in tight and limited spaces.

Maintenance Cost

The maintenance cost of a battery is the amount of money you pay to maintain the performance and lifespan of the battery. It is usually based on the frequency, complexity, and necessity of the maintenance tasks.

Lithium batteries have a lower maintenance cost than lead-acid batteries. For example, lithium batteries are maintenance-free and do not require any watering, equalizing, or cleaning. They also have BMS that monitor and regulate their performance and health. Lead-acid batteries require regular maintenance such as watering, equalizing, cleaning, and checking for corrosion and sulfation. They also need external regulators to prevent overcharging and undercharging.

Replacement Cost

The replacement cost of a battery is the amount of money you pay to replace the battery when it reaches the end of its lifespan. It is usually based on the lifespan, availability, and recyclability of the battery.

Lithium batteries have a lower replacement cost than lead-acid batteries. For example, lithium batteries can last up to four times longer than lead-acid batteries, which means they need to be replaced less often. They are also more widely available and recyclable than lead-acid batteries, which means they are easier and cheaper to dispose of.

Environmental Impact

The environmental impact of a battery is another factor to consider when choosing a battery. It includes the energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, waste generation, and resource depletion associated with the production, use, and disposal of the battery.

Energy Consumption

The energy consumption of a battery is the amount of energy required to produce, charge, and discharge the battery. It is usually based on the efficiency, lifespan, and capacity of the battery.

Lithium batteries have a lower energy consumption than lead-acid batteries. For example, lithium batteries can store and deliver more energy from the same amount of solar or generator input than lead-acid batteries due to their higher efficiency. They also need less energy to produce due to their longer lifespan and smaller size.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The greenhouse gas emissions of a battery are the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases released into the atmosphere as a result of the production, use, and disposal of the battery. They are usually based on the energy consumption, energy source, and recycling rate of the battery.

Lithium batteries have lower greenhouse gas emissions than lead-acid batteries. For example, lithium batteries can reduce CO2 emissions by up to 50% compared to lead-acid batteries due to their lower energy consumption and higher recycling rate. They also use renewable energy sources such as solar or wind more efficiently than lead-acid batteries due to their higher efficiency.

The production and carbon costs of Lead Acid vs Lithium, are very hard to know, with some saying Lithium is much worse, and it’s true that mining lithium and Iron and the other metals required may have a higher carbon footprint, but if you are using the battery daily, these will eventually become less.

Cranking Amps compared

When comparing cranking amps between LiFePO4 (Lithium Iron Phosphate) and lead-acid batteries, there are some important distinctions:

  1. LiFePO4 Batteries:
    • LiFePO4 batteries are more effective at delivering a large amount of current over a short period.
    • They are particularly suitable for applications where high cranking power is needed, such as starting engines or powering devices with significant initial current demands.
    • For instance, if you require a battery that can sustain a 40-amp device for two hours straight, LiFePO4 is an excellent choice
  2. Lead-Acid Batteries:
    • Lead-acid batteries have been around for a long time and are commonly used in various applications.
    • While they have their advantages, such as being cost-effective, they are not as efficient as LiFePO4 batteries in terms of cranking amps.
    • Lead-acid batteries may struggle to deliver high current consistently over a short duration compared to LiFePO4 batteries.

In summary, if you prioritize high cranking power and need a battery that can handle substantial current demands, LiFePO4 is the way to go.

Lithium Battery-school News
48v Battery Circuit Breaker or T Class Fuse

What are the most common curves for circuit breakers that are DC rated to 250A?

If you are looking for a circuit breaker that can handle direct current (DC) loads up to 500A, you might wonder what kind of tripping curve you should choose. A tripping curve is a graphical representation of how fast a circuit breaker will trip in response to different levels of overcurrent. It shows the relationship between the current and the tripping time of a protection device.

There are different types of tripping curves for circuit breakers, such as B, C, D, K and Z. Each curve has a different instantaneous trip current range, which is the amount of current at which the breaker will trip without causing a time delay. Generally, the higher the current spike, the faster the breaker will trip.

The most common curves for circuit breakers that are DC rated to 500A are C and D curves. These curves are suitable for inductive and motor loads with medium to high starting currents. They can also handle the inrush current of DC loads, which is the high current draw during the switching on of a load.

A C curve circuit breaker will trip instantaneously when the current flowing through it reaches between 5 to 10 times the rated current. For example, a C curve circuit breaker with a rated current of 25A will trip between 125A and 250A without any delay. This type of curve is ideal for domestic and residential applications and electromagnetic starting loads with medium starting currents.

A D curve circuit breaker will trip instantaneously when the current flowing through it reaches between above 10 (excluding 10) to 20 times the rated current. For example, a D curve circuit breaker with a rated current of 25A will trip between above 250A (excluding 250A) and 500A without any delay. This type of curve is ideal for inductive and motor loads with high starting currents.

The other curves, such as B, K and Z, are less common for circuit breakers that are DC rated to 250A. These curves are either too sensitive or too insensitive to short circuits and are used for specific applications.

A B curve circuit breaker will trip instantaneously when the current flowing through it reaches between 3 to 5 times the rated current. This type of curve is too sensitive for DC loads with high inrush currents and is mainly used for cable protection and electronic devices with low surge levels.

A K curve circuit breaker will trip instantaneously when the current flowing through it reaches between 8 to 12 times the rated current. This type of curve is similar to a D curve but has a higher instantaneous trip range. It is used for inductive and motor loads with very high inrush currents.

A Z curve circuit breaker will trip instantaneously when the current flowing through it reaches between 2 to 3 times the rated current. This type of curve is too insensitive for DC loads with high inrush currents and is mainly used for highly sensitive devices such as semiconductor devices.

To summarize, the most common curves for circuit breakers that are DC rated to 250A are C and D curves, depending on the type and size of the load. These curves can provide adequate protection against overcurrents and short circuits without tripping unnecessarily or too slowly.

An Alternative is to use a Circuit Breaker is a T class fuse

If you are using lithium batteries in any application, you might want to consider using a T-class fuse as part of your safety measures. A T-class fuse is a type of fuse that is specifically designed for use with lithium batteries. It has a fast-acting, low-melting-point element that can quickly interrupt the flow of current in the event of an overcurrent or short-circuit condition. This helps prevent damage to the battery and reduces the risk of fire or explosion.

Here are some of the benefits of using a T-class fuse in your lithium battery setup:

  1. Improved Safety: T-class fuses can protect the battery from overcurrent and short-circuit conditions, which can help prevent damage to the battery and reduce the risk of fire or explosion .
  2. Increased Reliability: T-class fuses can help increase the overall reliability of your setup by preventing damage to the battery and other components in case of an overcurrent or short-circuit condition . This is especially important in applications where downtime or failure can be costly or dangerous.
  3. Simplified Design: T-class fuses can simplify the design of your lithium battery setup by eliminating the need to select the right type of fuse for your application. Because they are designed specifically for use with lithium batteries, you don’t have to worry about compatibility issues or errors .
  4. Cost-Effective: T-class fuses are generally affordable, especially when compared to the cost of replacing damaged batteries or dealing with the consequences of a battery-related incident. They are also durable and long-lasting, which can save you money in the long run .

To sum up, using a T-class fuse in your lithium battery setup can provide a range of benefits, from improved safety and reliability to simplified design and cost savings. If you want to learn more about T-class fuses and how to use them, you can read more, to learn about

Class T vs ANL fuse

Choosing between ANL and Class T fuses depends on your specific needs and application. Here’s a breakdown of their key differences to help you decide:

Current Interrupt Capacity:

  • ANL fuse: Up to 2,700 amps, suitable for automotive starting batteries and modest DC current applications.
  • Class T fuse: Up to 200,000 amps, significantly higher, making it ideal for high-power systems with lithium batteries, solar panels, inverters, etc.

Response Time:

  • ANL fuse: Moderately fast, but not as fast as Class T.
  • Class T fuse: Very fast, crucial for protecting sensitive electronics from quick surge currents.

Size and Cost:

  • ANL fuse: Larger and typically cheaper.
  • Class T fuse: Smaller and more expensive due to its superior capabilities.

Applications:

  • ANL fuse: Good for:
    • Starter batteries
    • Audio systems
    • Winches
    • Moderate-power DC circuits
  • Class T fuse: Ideal for:
    • Lithium batteries
    • Solar power systems
    • Inverters
    • High-power industrial applications
    • Sensitive electronics requiring fast protection

Additional Considerations:

  • ANL fuses: Prone to arcing after blowing, potentially causing further damage.
  • Class T fuses: Designed to minimize arcing, enhancing safety.
  • Certification: Class T fuses often have UL 248-15 listing, important for marine applications.

In summary:

  • Choose ANL fuse for moderate-power DC applications like car audio or winches where affordability is a concern.
  • Choose Class T fuse for high-power systems with lithium batteries, solar panels, or sensitive electronics where fast response and high interrupt capacity are critical, despite the higher cost.

Class-T fuses

are a type of high-performance, fast-acting fuse designed for protecting demanding electrical systems from damage caused by overcurrents and short circuits. They are known for their:

  • High interrupt capacity: Up to 200,000 amps, making them suitable for high-power applications like marine, solar, and industrial systems.
  • Fast response time: They blow very quickly in the event of a fault, minimizing damage to equipment.
  • Compact size: They are smaller than other types of fuses with similar current ratings, making them ideal for space-constrained applications.
  • Corrosion resistance: They are constructed with nickel-plated terminals and a sealed ceramic body, making them resistant to corrosion in harsh environments.

Here are some of the common applications of Class-T fuses:

  • Marine electrical systems: Protecting batteries, inverters, chargers, and other sensitive equipment. Class T fuse in marine electrical system
  • Solar power systems: Protecting solar panels, charge controllers, and batteries. Class T fuse in solar power system
  • Industrial control panels: Protecting motors, drives, and other critical equipment.
  • Battery banks: Protecting large battery banks from short circuits and overcurrent’s. Class T fuse in battery bank
  • Variable speed drives: Protecting drives from motor faults and overloads.
  • Rectifiers: Protecting rectifiers from overloads and short circuits.

When choosing a Class-T fuse, it is important to consider the following factors:

  • The amount of current the circuit will carry: Choose a fuse with a current rating that is slightly higher than the maximum expected current in the circuit.
  • The type of fault the fuse is protecting against: Choose a fuse with an interrupt capacity that is high enough to handle the maximum fault current that is likely to occur.
  • The physical size constraints of the application: Choose a fuse that will fit in the available space.

I cannot directly recommend a specific fuse size without more information. Choosing the wrong fuse size can be dangerous, so it’s crucial to follow proper guidelines and consult a qualified electrician for accurate sizing.

However, I can help you gather the necessary information to make an informed decision:

1. Identify your application:

  • What are you protecting with the fuse (e.g., battery bank, inverter, solar panel system)?
  • What is the voltage and amperage rating of the circuit?

2. Consult the device manuals:

  • The manuals for your devices (battery, inverter, etc.) should specify the recommended fuse size or amp rating.
  • Do not exceed the recommended fuse size for any device.

3. Consider continuous and surge currents:

  • Choose a fuse with a continuous current rating slightly higher than the maximum expected current in the circuit under normal operation.
  • Account for potential surge currents (e.g., motor startup) and choose a fuse with an interrupt capacity high enough to handle those surges safely.

4. Follow safety standards and regulations:

  • Ensure the chosen fuse complies with relevant safety standards for your application (e.g., UL 248-15 for marine use).

5. Consult a qualified electrician:

  • If you’re unsure about any aspect of fuse selection or electrical work, always seek guidance from a qualified electrician. They can assess your specific needs and recommend the most suitable fuse size for your application, ensuring safety and optimal performance.

Remember, safety is paramount when working with electrical systems. Never experiment with fuse sizes or attempt electrical work without proper knowledge and qualifications.

Class-T fuses are a reliable and effective way to protect your electrical equipment from damage. If you are unsure about which fuse to choose, consult with a qualified electrician.

Remember, consult qualified personnel when dealing with high-power applications and fuse selection. They can assess your specific needs and recommend the most suitable option for safety and optimal performance.

We hope this blog post was informative and helpful for you. If you have any questions or feedback, please feel free to leave a comment below. Thank you for reading!

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